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Male, US, born 1896-01-09, died 1949-03-30

Associated with the firm network

De Forest, Lockwood, Landscape Architect

Professional History


According to the Online Archive of California (OAC), de Forest "...worked briefly for a landscape architect in Baltimore...prior to serving as a volunteer in World War I." (See Onlive Archive of California, "Collection Guide: Lockwood de Forest Landscape Drawings 0000184B," accessed 12/12/2017.)

Employee, Ralph Stevens, Landscape Architect, Santa Barbara, CA, 1921-1922.

Principal, Lockwood de Forest III, Landscape Designer, Santa Barbara, CA, 1924-1949. De Forest moved in an elite social set in Santa Barbara, designing gardens for friends and acquaintances of himself and his parents. His parents high social standing in New York enabled him entrée to many wealthy neighbors who moved to Santa Barbara after 1900. A brief biography written by the Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection said of his work: "Informed by his California childhood and several trips to Europe, de Forest crafted a landscape architecture aesthetic defined by bold effects, asymmetrical elements juxtaposed with formal details, and painterly designs." (See Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, "Forest, Lockwood de, Jr. (American landscape architect, 1896-1949)," accessed 12/08/2017.)

De Forest worked closely with his wife, Elizabeth Kellam De Forest, who was an accomplished horticulturatlist. The Cultural Landscape Foundation stated in its biography of de Forest: "De Forest, along with his wife and business partner, Elizabeth Kellam de Forest, was especially recognized for bold, theatrical effects accomplished through horticulture, asymmetrical elements within formal settings, and for design work with a strong painterly quality. Together, the de Forests founded and subsequently edited The Santa Barbara Gardener from 1925-1942, combining Elizabeth’s plant knowledge and elegant prose with Lockwood’s knowledgeable commentary on design." (See The Cultural Landscape, "Lockwood De Forest III 1896-1949," accessed 12/08/2017.) The Santa Barbara Gardener's first issue was in 12/1925.

de Forest did two years of military service during World War II. He passed away from a heart ailment at age 53.

Professional Activities

Member, American Society of Landscape Architects (ASLA).


His papers have been preserved at the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB), Art, Design & Architecture Museum.


High School/College

Graduate, Thacher School, Ojai, CA, 1912-c. 1916.

Coursework, Williams College, Amherst, MA, c. 1916-1917.

After Williams, he attended summer school in landscape architecture at Harvard, the first university in the US to develop a curriculum in landscape architecture.

One year of coursework in landscape architecture, University of California, Berkeley (UCB), Berkeley, CA, c. 1920. He met William W. Wurster, an architecture student, while at Cal. A year later, he toured Europe with Wurster. The Online Archive of California said of his patchwork education: "He returned to California after the war to embark on a brief and unusual professional education. He studied Landscape Architecture at the University of California, Berkeley for one year. In 1921 he traveled for three months in Italy, Spain, France and England studying historic gardens and public parks, especially fascinated by Spanish fountains, the gardens of Seville and the Maria Luisa Park by J. C. N. Forestier. He also spent several weeks studying plants at Kew Gardens." (See Onlive Archive of California, "Collection Guide: Lockwood de Forest Landscape Drawings 0000184B," accessed 12/12/2017.)



Born in New York, NY, Lockwood de Forest III lived with his parents, two siblings and four servants on East 10th Street in New York in 1900. The servants included Margaret Flynn (born c. 07/1855 in Ireland), Anita Hansen (born c. 09/1872 in Norway), Mary Rockett (born c. 02/1874 in Ireland), and Alice Marinat (born c. 07/1863 in Switzerland). (See, Source Citation Year: 1900; Census Place: Manhattan, New York, New York; Roll: 1085; Page: 1A; Enumeration District: 0103; FHL microfilm: 1241085, accessed 12/08/2017.) Ten years later, the family lived in the same location, although Judith and all four servants no longer resided at home. (See, Source Citation Year: 1910; Census Place: Manhattan Ward 15, New York, New York; Roll: T624_1030; Page: 9A; Enumeration District: 0823; FHL microfilm: 1375043, accessed 12/08/2017.) The family transplanted itself to Santa Barbara, CA, in either 1912 or 1913. (The family first appeared in the Santa Barbara, California, City Directoryin 1913 [p. 61].) Lockwood attended the Thacher School in Ojai, CA, from about 1912 until 1916.

The de Forests first lived at 1845 Laguna Street in Santa Barbara, during 1913-1914. Lockwood's parents moved to 335 East Islay Street in Santa Barbara in 1915. (See Santa Barbara, California, City Directory, 1915, p. 71.) He spent one semester at Williams College in Amherst, MA, c. 1916-1917, but disliked it and left quickly. He also spent a summer in Cambridge, MA, attending a landscape architecture class at Harvard University, c. 1917.

In 1918, his parents relocated to 1815 Laguna Street, but Lockwood III remained at the old address, according to the Santa Barbara, California, City Directory, 1918, (p. 90.)

By the time of his 1921 Eurpean trip, he listed his permanent residence as 1815 Laguna Street.

He lived for much of his life in Santa Barbara, CA. In 1930, he and his family lived with two servants, a teacher and a maid on Mission Canyon Road. (See, Source Citation Year: 1930; Census Place: Township 2, Santa Barbara, California; Roll: 214; Page: 9B; Enumeration District: 0028; FHL microfilm: 2339949, accessed 12/08/2017.) Their house was one of two that formed a compound on a sizable piece of land; his parents-in-law, Frederick and Edith Kellam, commissioned the San Francisco architect William Wurster (1895-1973), a college friend of de Forest's, to design another house on the property in 1928-1929. Wurster and de Forest traveled together in Europe in the early 1920s.

In 1930, the Kellam and de Forest houses were worth considerable amounts. According to the US Census, the Kellam House had an approximate value of $45,000 and the de Forest House, $22.000. The Kellams had the most valuable in the immediate vicinity of 13 residences, which had an average price of about $20,346. This was considerably above the national average for residences in that year.

The family was one of two families residing on Todos Santos Lane in 1940. The de Forest household, at 2659 Todos Santos, consisted of Lockwood III, Elizabeth, Kellam, Lockwood IV, and a nurse, Agnes Brons (born c. 1887 in IA). Frederick (born 01/31/1865 in New Haven, CT) and Edith Bishop (born c. 1875 in CA) Kellam, Elizabeth's parents, lived in the other house on Todos Santos. (See, Source Citation Year: 1940; Census Place: Santa Barbara, California; Roll: T627_334; Page: 1B; Enumeration District: 42-36, accessed 12/08/2017.)

He died prematurely of pneumonia in Santa Barbara at the age of 53.


Son of the well-known New York, NY painter, interior designer, and partner (with Louis Comfort Tiffany [1848-1933]) in the design firm of Associated Artists, Lockwood de Forest, Jr., (born 06/23/1850 in New York, NY-d. 04/03/1932 in Santa Barbara, CA); de Forest worked for Associated Artists between 1879-1883; he specialized in Indian arts and crafts, writing an admiring book on the subject in 1885; Lockwood de Forest's mother was Meta Kemble (born c. 1852-d. 11/11/1933). Much of her wealth came from being part of the du Pont family, owners of the enormous E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company gun powder, chemical and paint congllomerate. She married Lockwood de Forest II on 11/11/1880 at Trinity Church, New York, NY. (See, Source Information New York, New York, Marriage Certificate Index 1866-1937 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Operations, Inc., 2014, accessed 12/08/2017.) Her father was Peter Kemble. (See, Source Information U.S., Newspaper Extractions from the Northeast, 1704-1930 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Operations, Inc., 2014. This collection was indexed by Ancestry World Archives Project contributors, accessed 12/08/2017.)

Lockwood III also had a brother, Alfred Victor de Forest (born c. 04/1888-d. 04/05/1945 in Markboro, NH) and a sister, Judith, (born c. 04/1884).


Lockwood de Forest III married Elizabeth Kellam de Forest, (b. CA, 02/19/1898-d. Santa Barbara, CA, 03/04/1984); her mother's maiden name was Bishop;


In 1930, Lockwood and Elizabeth had had one child, a son, Kellam de Forest (born born 11/11/1926 in Santa Barbara, CA). By 1936, they had another son, Lockwood de Forest IV, born 01/31/1936, in Santa Barbara, CA. (Thank you to Martine Mickiewicz who noted the birth of Lockwood de Forest IV in an email to the author of 10/18/2017.) Lockwood IV was known as "Lockie" within the de Forest household. (Another thank you to Martine Mickiewicz who emailed this information to the author on 12/07/2017.)

Biographical Notes

Although he was the third in the line of Lockwood de Forests, Lockwood de Forest III went by the name "Lockwood de Forest, Jr."

According to a US Passport application of 03/16/1921, De Forest intended to take a "pleasure and study" trip to Italy, Spain, France, the British Isles, and Switzerland for about 8 months in the coming year. It was on this grand tour, that he traveled with the San Francisco architect William W. Wurster (1895-1973). According to this document, de Forest, at 25, stood 5-feet, 11-inches tall, had a high forehead, wide mouth, round chin, ruddy complexion, oval face, broad nose, blue eyes and brown hair. Santa Barbara architect Winsor Soule (1883-1954), who testified that he had known de Forest for 11 years in 1921, identified him for US authorities. (See, Source Citation National Archives and Records Administration (NARA); Washington D.C.; NARA Series: Passport Applications, January 2, 1906 - March 31, 1925; Roll #: 1536; Volume #: Roll 1536 - Certificates: 7500-7875, 22 Mar 1921-23 Mar 1921, accessed 12/08/2017.)

According to a 2005 Los Angeles Times article, de Forest designed approximately 1,500 gardens, only one of which was extent in 2005, that of Val Verde. This, according to landscape architecture historian, is not an accurate count; he puts the figure at several hundred. (Information from conversation with Prof. David Streatfield, University of Washington, Seattle, 02/12/2007.) SSN: 553-54-9143);

Associated Locations

PCAD id: 1718